Excavation. When planning the territory or the construction of any structure, excavation is required. Types of earthwork: trench, embankment, reserve, pit, pit, cavalier. Earthwork there are temporary, permanent. Work can be divided into several stages:
one. Preparatory work,
2. Auxiliary excavation for them,
3. Landscaping of the territory.
The auxiliary work is powerfully attributed to the: clearing of the territory, the removal of surface waters, strengthening the soil, drainage device, and t. D. Earthwork includes: moving, laying and densification of soil. They are divided into open work, underground and underwater.
The main methods of earthwork are an explosive method, hydromechanical, and mechanical, the most popular of them. For the transportation of soil, rail vehicles, non -rope, dump trucks are used. In such works, it is important to consider the classification of soils. The first class includes rocky soils, to the second dispersed soils, to the third frozen soils, and to the fourth technogenic soils (which include a mixture (dispersed, rocky and frozen). After the end of excavation, they begin to improve the territory (garbage removal, asphalting of roads, landscape design).
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